Introduction: Varicocele is a dilatation of the pampiniform venous plexus and the internal spermatic vein. Varicocele is the most modifiable common cause of infertility in men with a general prevalence ranging from 15% to 45%.
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the expression of S100 and CD34 markers in the spermatic vein in patients undergoing.
Patients and Methods: This quasi-experimental (before-after) study was performed on 30 patients undergoing varicocelectomy surgery referred to a tertiary care medical center in Urmia. The expression of S100 and CD34 markers in spermatic veins were examined after surgery. According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), we arranged the data of semen analysis to normal and abnormal. Data collecting forms were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 18 software.
Results: The mean age of patients was 27.66 ± 6.94 years. Regarding the S100 factor, 48.3% of patients were positive and 51.7% were negative. Regarding CD34 factor, 79.3% of patients were positive and 20.7% were negative. There was no significant correlation between count, morphology, and motility variables before and after varicocele surgery with expression of the S100 and CD34 markers in spermatic vein wall. There was a statistical relationship between S100 and motility before surgery showing the high normal motility in patients who have S100. Regarding improvement, two patients (6.9%) in count, one patient (3.49%) in motility, five patients (17.2%) in morphology, seven patients (24.1%) in count and motility, four patients (13.8%) in count and morphology, five patients (17.2%) in motility and morphology and two patients (6.9%) in all factors had improvement.
Conclusion: In this study we found, varicocelectomy leads to improvement in count, morphology, and motility variables. In high grade varicocele, S100 and CD34 markers are damaged. According to the WHO definition, varicocelectomy can increase the value of count, motility and morphology parameters. It is recommended that a large randomized control trial and cohort study be conducted on S100 and CD34 markers to understand the relation between spermatic vein structural changes and semen analysis disorders.
Trial Registration: The trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (identifier: IRCT20180625040232N1, https://en.irct.ir/trial/32142).