Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative spiral rod bacterium which inhabits gastric mucosa and attaches to the gastric epithelium using specific receptor. H. pylori infection endures as one of the most challenging diseases triggering high mortality and morbidity. H. pylori infection is reported as the cause of gastric cancer, chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and other gastrointestinal disorders. It was suggested that long-term H. pylori infection may aggravate chronic kidney disease (CKD) complications and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Patients with chronic renal failure often possess gastrointestinal symptoms including decline of gastrointestinal motility, amyloid protein deposition and decreased sensory disturbance. Hence, in patients with chronic renal failure, the nutrition status is pour which usually leads to the development of malnutrition. This status will increase the morbidity and mortality of these patients. These patients in comparison to individuals with normal renal function usually have higher risks of gastric mucosal damage due to hypergastrinemia, enhanced inflammation, local chronic circulatory failure and high level of ammonia. Majority of these patients (25%– 75%) usually suffer from gastrointestinal complications such as gastric erosions, gastrointestinal bleeding, peptic ulcers and angiodysplasia. The aim of the present study was to review the relation between one of the most challenging diseases, called H. pylori infection, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), diabetic and chronic hemodialysis individuals as well as presenting the treatment strategies of this infection.