Submitted: 26 Mar 2024
Accepted: 17 May 2024
ePublished: 27 May 2024
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Immunopathol Persa. 2024;10(2): e40644.
doi: 10.34172/ipp.2024.40644
  Abstract View: 110
  PDF Download: 77


The association of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and fetal fibronectin in the first trimester threatened miscarriage

Maha Saad Maki 1* ORCID logo, Mohammed Shamil Ali 1 ORCID logo, Hala Zghair Rawi 2 ORCID logo

1 University of Technology-Iraq, Applied Sciences Department, Branch of Chemistry, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriyah University Baghdad, Iraq
*Corresponding Author: Maha Saad Maki, Email: As.21.37@grad.uotechnology.edu.iq, Email: Maha_medic87@yahoo.com


Introduction: Vaginal bleeding during the first trimester of pregnancy, accompanied by a positive fetal heart rate and a closed cervix, is medically referred to as a threatened miscarriage. This condition is considered the most common complication within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. It is important to note that, this condition is a potential indication of danger to the fetus, and therefore; requires immediate medical attention and monitoring.

Objectives: To evaluate the association of putative biomarkers matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and fetal fibronectin (fFN) in threatened miscarriage.

Patients and Methods: A case-control study on threatened miscarriage was conducted at Alkarama hospital and Ibn al Balady Hospital in Baghdad. Serum levels of fFN and MMP-9 were analyzed in 91 pregnant women with matching gestational ages, divided into two groups of threatened miscarriage (patient: n=30) and healthy pregnant women (control: n=61). The differences in serum concentration of fFN and MMP-9 between the two groups, as well as their correlation with clinical outcomes, were statistically evaluated.

Results: There were variations in serum concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase9 between the threatened miscarriage group (49.34±1.08 pg/mL) and the control group (12.19±4.90 pg/mL). Statistical analysis showed a p-value of 0.009. FFN levels were found to be higher in the threatened miscarriage patient group (467.85±6.22 pg/mL) compared to the control group (230.66±37.44 pg/mL), with a P-value of 0.003. A positive correlation was observed between MMP-9 and fFN (r=0.877, P=0.001). The 95% confidence interval for fFN was (0.9-0.992) and for MMP-9 was (0.78-0.96).

Conclusion: Increased levels of MMP-9 and fFN have been associated with a higher risk of fetal demise.

Citation: Saad Maki M, Shamil Ali M, Zghair Rawi H. The association of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and fetal fibronectin in the first trimester threatened miscarriage. Immunopathol Persa. 2024;10(2):e40644. DOI:10.34172/ipp.2024.40644.
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