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Submitted: 04 Aug 2022
Accepted: 21 Sep 2022
ePublished: 08 Oct 2022
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Immunopathol Persa. 2023;9(1): e34449.
doi: 10.34172/ipp.2022.34449
  Abstract View: 269
  PDF Download: 135

Review

Omicron variant of COVID-19: A focused review of biologic, clinical, and epidemiological changes

Hossein Majlesi 1 ORCID logo, Saba Shahsavan 1 ORCID logo, Yeganeh Farsi 1 ORCID logo, Atena Tamimi 1 ORCID logo, Saba Ilkhani 2 ORCID logo, Zohreh Tajabadi 3 ORCID logo, Alvand Naserghandi 1 ORCID logo, Niloofar Fakour 4 ORCID logo, Mohammad Javad Nasiri 5 ORCID logo, Ehsan Nazemallhoseini-Mojarad 4 ORCID logo, Seyed Amir Ahmad Safavi-Naini 4* ORCID logo

1 Student Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
3 Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Correspondence to Seyed Amir Ahmad SafaviNaini, Email: , Email: amirsafavi@sbmu.ac.ir

Abstract

On 25 November 2021, the world health organization listed Omicron as a newly arisen and the fifth variant of concern (VoC) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The genome sequence of Omicron showed the utmost number of mutations compared to other known VoCs up to now, and it was regarded as the only SARS-CoV-2 variant with changes in the receptor-binding domain (RBD). However, the Omicron is still detectable via previous polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Clinical presentation of the disease is identical to previous VoCs, however in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a higher transmission rate. The biggest obstacles posed by Omicron are the immune escape and reduction in vaccine effectiveness, as indicated by many simulations and real-world studies. Although the efficacy of the two-dose vaccinations is suboptimal for Omicron, preliminary studies have considered the injection of a booster shot is beneficial and can decrease the risk of severe disease. All these new features of Omicron warranted close investigation of this VoC as a new chapter in the pandemic, especially with emersion of subvariants BA.4 and BA.5. This review presents a conspectus of the current knowledge on the COVID-19 Omicron variant biological, clinical, and epidemiological changes.

Citation: Majlesi H, Shahsavan S, Farsi Y, Tamimi A, Ilkhani S, Tajabadi Z, Naserghandi A, Fakour N, Nasiri MJ, Nazemallhoseini-Mojarad E, Safavi-Naini SAA. Omicron variant of COVID-19: A focused review of biologic, clinical, and epidemiological changes. Immunopathol Persa. 2023;9(1):e34449. DOI:10.34172/ ipp.2022.34449.
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